An Introduction to Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
By Venkatesh J
What is Total Productive Maintenance ( TPM ) ?
It can be considered as the medical science of machines. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment.
The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction.
TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business.
It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process.
The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.
Why TPM ?
TPM was introduced
to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below.
- Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment.
- Producing goods without reducing product quality.
- Reduce cost.
- Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time.
- Goods send to the customers must be non defective.
Similarities and differences
between TQM and TPM :
The TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program.
Many of the tools such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc.
used in TQM are used to implement and optimize TPM.Following
are the similarities between the two.
- Total commitment to the program by upper level management is required in
- Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action, and
- A long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job responsibilities must take place as well.
The differences between TQM and TPM is summarized
||Quality ( Output and effects )
||Equipment ( Input and cause )
|Mains of attaining goal
||Systematize the management. It is
||Employees participation and it is hardware
||Quality for PPM
||Elimination of losses and wastes.
Types of maintenance :
1. Breakdown maintenance :
that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing
could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the
operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair
2. Preventive maintenance ( 1951 ):
It is a
daily maintenance ( cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening ), design
to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the
prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure
deterioration. It is
further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance.
Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service
life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance.
2a. Periodic maintenance ( Time based maintenance
- TBM) :
based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting, servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent
sudden failure and process
2b. Predictive maintenance :
a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection
or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their
service life. Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based
maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data
about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor
conditions through an on-line system.
3. Corrective maintenance ( 1957 ) :
improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be
carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned
to improve reliability or improving maintainability
4. Maintenance prevention ( 1960 ):
indicates the design of a new equipment. Weakness of current machines
are sufficiently studied ( on site information leading to failure prevention,
easier maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing )
and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment.
TPM - History:
TPM is a innovative Japanese
concept. The origin
of TPM can be traced back to 1951 when preventive maintenance was introduced
in Japan. However the concept of preventive maintenance was taken from USA. Nippondenso
was the first company to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in
1960. Preventive maintenance is the concept wherein, operators produced
goods using machines and the maintenance group was dedicated with work of
maintaining those machines, however with the automation of Nippondenso,
maintenance became a problem as more maintenance personnel were
required. So the management decided that the routine maintenance of
equipment would be carried out by the operators. ( This is
Autonomous maintenance, one of the features of TPM ). Maintenance group took up only essential maintenance works.
Thus Nippondenso which already followed
preventive maintenance also added Autonomous maintenance done by production
operators. The maintenance crew went in the equipment modification for
improving reliability. The modifications were made or incorporated in
new equipment. This lead to maintenance prevention. Thus preventive maintenance along with
Maintenance prevention and Maintainability Improvement
gave birth to Productive maintenance. The aim of
productive maintenance was to maximize
plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve optimum life cycle cost of production
Nippon Denso had made quality circles, involving the employees
participation. Thus all employees took part in implementing Productive
maintenance. Based on
these developments Nippondenso was awarded the distinguished
plant prize for developing and implementing TPM, by the Japanese Institute
of Plant Engineers ( JIPE ). Thus Nippondenso of the Toyota group
became the first company to obtain the TPM certification.
Obtain Minimum 80% OPE.
Obtain Minimum 90% OEE ( Overall Equipment Effectiveness )
Run the machines even during lunch. ( Lunch is for operators and not
for machines ! )
Operate in a manner, so that there are no customer complaints.
Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%.
Achieve 100% success in delivering the goods as required by the customer.
a accident free environment.
Increase the suggestions by 3 times. Develop Multi-skilled and flexible
|Motives of TPM
- Adoption of life cycle approach for improving the overall performance of
- Improving productivity by highly motivated workers which is achieved by
- The use of voluntary small group activities for identifying the cause of
failure, possible plant and equipment modifications.
The major difference
between TPM and other concepts is that the operators are also made to involve
in the maintenance process. The concept of "I ( Production
operators ) Operate, You ( Maintenance department ) fix" is not
- Achieve Zero Defects, Zero Breakdown and Zero accidents in all functional
areas of the organization.
- Involve people in all levels of organization.
- Form different teams to reduce defects and Self Maintenance.
|Direct benefits of
- Increase productivity and OPE ( Overall Plant Efficiency ) by 1.5 or 2 times.
- Rectify customer complaints.
- Reducethe manufacturing cost by 30%.
- Satisfy the customers needs by 100 % ( Delivering the right quantity
at the right time, in the required quality. )
- Reduce accidents.
- Follow pollution control measures.
|Indirect benefits of
- Higher confidence level among the employees.
- Keep the work place clean, neat and attractive.
- Favorablechange in the attitude of the operators.
- Achieve goals by working as team.
- Horizontaldeployment of a new concept in all areas of the organization.
- Share knowledge and experience.
- The workers get a feeling of owning the machine.
OEE ( Overall Equipment Efficiency ) :
OEE = A x PE x Q
A - Availability
of the machine. Availability is proportion of time machine is actually available out of time it should be available.
A = ( MTBF - MTTR ) / MTBF.
MTBF - Mean Time Between
Failures = ( Total Running Time ) / Number of Failures.
MTTR - Mean Time To Repair.
PE - Performance Efficiency.
It is given by RE X SE.
Rate efficiency (RE) : Actual average cycle time is slower than design cycle time because of jams, etc.
Output is reduced because of jams
Speed efficiency (SE) : Actual cycle time is slower than design cycle time
machine output is reduced because it is running at reduced speed.
Q - Refers to quality rate.
Which is percentage of good parts out of total produced sometimes called "yield".
Steps in introduction of TPM in a
Step A - PREPARATORY STAGE :
STEP 1 - Announcement by Management to all
about TPM introduction in the organization :
Proper understanding, commitment and active involvement of the top management
in needed for this step. Senior management should have awareness programmes,
after which announcement is made to all. Publish it in
the house magazine and put it in the notice board. Send a letter to all
concerned individuals if required.
STEP 2 - Initial education and propaganda for
Training is to be done based on the need. Some need intensive training and
some just an awareness. Take people who matters to places where TPM already
STEP 3 - Setting up TPM and departmental
TPM includes improvement, autonomous maintenance, quality maintenance etc., as
part of it. When committees are set up it should take care of all those needs.
STEP 4 - Establishing the TPM working system
and target :
Now each area is benchmarked and fix up a target for achievement.
STEP 5 - A master plan for institutionalizing :
Next step is implementation leading to institutionalizing wherein TPM becomes
an organizational culture. Achieving PM award is the proof of reaching a
STEP B - INTRODUCTION STAGE
This is a ceremony and we should invite all. Suppliers as they should know
that we want quality supply from them. Related companies and affiliated
companies who can be our customers, sisters concerns etc. Some may learn from
us and some can help us and customers will get the communication from us that
we care for quality output.
STAGE C - IMPLEMENTATION
In this stage eight activities are carried which are called eight pillars in
the development of TPM activity.
Of these four activities are for establishing the system for production
efficiency, one for initial control system of new products and equipment, one
for improving the efficiency of administration and are for control of safety,
sanitation as working environment.
STAGE D - INSTITUTIONALISING STAGE
By all there activities one would has reached maturity stage. Now is the time
for applying for PM award. Also think of challenging level to which you can
take this movement.
Organization Structure for TPM Implementation :
Pillars of TPM
PILLAR 1 - 5S :
starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems.
Making problems visible is the first step of improvement.
||Equivalent 'S' term
||Self - Discipline
SEIRI - Sort out :
This means sorting and
organizing the items as critical, important, frequently used items, useless, or items
that are not need as of now. Unwanted items can be salvaged.
Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in
near future, should be stored in some place. For this step, the worth of
the item should be decided based on utility and not cost. As a
result of this step, the search time is reduced.
||Less than once per year, Once per year<
||Throw away, Store away from the workplace
||At least 2/6 months, Once
per month, Once per week
||Store together but offline
||Once Per Day
||Locate at the workplace
SEITON - Organise :
The concept here is that "Each items
has a place, and only one place". The items should be placed
back after usage at the same place. To
identify items easily, name plates and colored
tags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose, and
heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks.
SEISO - Shine the workplace :
involves cleaning the work place free of burrs, grease, oil, waste, scrap
etc. No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines.
SEIKETSU - Standardization :
Employees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work
place / Machines / pathways neat and clean. This standards are
implemented for whole organization and are tested / Inspected randomly.
SHITSUKE - Self discipline :
Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the
employees of the organization. This includes wearing badges, following
work procedures, punctuality, dedication to the organization etc.
PILLAR 2 - JISHU HOZEN ( Autonomous maintenance ) :
This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take
care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled
maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and
technical repairs. The operators are responsible for
upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating.
- Uninterrupted operation of equipments.
- Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipments.
- Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation.
- Stepwise implementation of JH activities.
JISHU HOZEN Targets:
- Prevent the occurrence of 1A / 1B because of JH.
- Reduce oil consumption by 50%
- Reduce process time by 50%
- Increase use of JH by 50%
Steps in JISHU HOZEN :
- Preparation of employees.
- Initial cleanup of machines.
- Take counter measures
- Fix tentative JH standards
- General inspection
- Autonomous inspection
- Standardization and
- Autonomous management.
the above mentioned steps is discussed in detail below.
- Train the Employees :
Educate the employees about TPM,
Its advantages, JH advantages and Steps in JH. Educate the employees about abnormalities in equipments.
- Initial cleanup of machines :
- Supervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for implementing
- Arrange all items needed for cleaning
- On the arranged date, employees should clean the equipment completely
with the help of maintenance department.
- Dust, stains, oils and grease has to be removed.
- Following are the things that has to be taken care while cleaning.
They are Oil leakage, loose wires, unfastened nits and bolts and worn out
- After clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged. White
tags is place where problems can be solved by operators. Pink tag is
placed where the aid of maintenance department is needed.
- Contents of tag is transferred to a register.
- Make note of area which were inaccessible.
- Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine.
- Counter Measures :
- Inaccessible regions had to be reached easily. E.g. If there are
many screw to open a fly wheel door, hinge door can be used. Instead
of opening a door for inspecting the machine, acrylic sheets can be used.
- To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken.
- Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and
- Tentative Standard :
- JH schedule has to be made and followed strictly.
- Schedule should be made regarding cleaning, inspection and lubrication
and it also should include details like when, what and how.
- General Inspection :
- The employees are trained in disciplines like Pneumatics, electrical,
hydraulics, lubricant and coolant, drives, bolts, nuts and Safety.
- This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to
use inspection manuals correctly.
- After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with
- By acquiring this new technical knowledge, the operators are now well
aware of machine parts.
- Autonomous Inspection :
- New methods of cleaning and lubricating are used.
- Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart / schedule in consultation
- Parts which have never given any problem or part which don't need any
inspection are removed from list permanently based on experience.
- Including good quality machine parts. This avoid defects due to poor
- Inspection that is made in preventive maintenance is included in JH.
- The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience.
- Standardization :
- Upto the previous stem only the machinery / equipment was the
concentration. However in this step the surroundings of machinery are organized.
Necessary items should be organized, such that there is no searching and
searching time is reduced.
- Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting
- Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly.
- Necessary spares for equipments is planned and procured.
- Autonomous Management :
- OEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous improve
- PDCA ( Plan, Do, Check and Act ) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen.
PILLAR 3 - KAIZEN :
"Kai" means change, and "Zen" means good ( for the better
). Basically kaizen is for small improvements, but carried out on a
continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Kaizen is
opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little
investment. The principle behind is that "a very large number of
small improvements are move effective in an organizational environment than a
few improvements of large value. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our
efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate
losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not limited to production
areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as
Kaizen Policy :
- Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity.
- relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources
- Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness.
- Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses.
- Focus of easy handling of operators.
Kaizen Target :
and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops, measurement and
adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve
30% manufacturing cost reduction.
Tools used in Kaizen :
- PM analysis
- Why - Why analysis
- Summary of losses
- Kaizen register
- Kaizen summary sheet.
The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. TPM aims
at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability
maximization. As one
of the pillars of TPM activities, Kaizen pursues efficient equipment, operator
and material and energy utilization, that is extremes of productivity and
aims at achieving substantial effects. Kaizen activities try to
thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses.
16 Major losses in a organisation:
- Failure losses - Breakdown loss
- Setup / adjustment losses
- Cutting blade loss
- Start up loss
- Minor stoppage / Idling loss.
- Speed loss - operating at low speeds.
- Defect / rework loss
- Scheduled downtime loss
|Losses that impede equipment efficiency
- Management loss
- Operating motion loss
- Line organization loss
- Logistic loss
- Measurement and adjustment loss
|Loses that impede human work efficiency
- Energy loss
- Die, jig and tool breakage loss
- Yield loss.
|Loses that impede effective use of production
Classification of losses :
Causes for this failure can be easily traced.
Cause-effect relationship is simple to trace.
This loss cannot be easily identified and solved.
Even if various counter measures are applied
Easy to establish a remedial measure
This type of losses are caused because of hidden
defects in machine, equipment and methods.
Impact / Loss
A single loss can be costly
A single cause is rare - a combination of causes trends
to be a rule
Frequency of occurrence
The frequency of occurrence is low and occasional.
The frequency of loss is more.
Usually the line personnel in the production can attend to this
Specialists in process engineering, quality assurance and maintenance
people are required.
PILLAR 4 - PLANNED MAINTENANCE :
aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free
products for total customer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families" or
groups which was defined earlier.
- Preventive Maintenance
- Breakdown Maintenance
- Corrective Maintenance
- Maintenance Prevention
With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a
proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the
operators to better maintain their equipment.
- Achieve and sustain availability of machines
- Optimum maintenance cost.
- Reduces spares inventory.
- Improve reliability and maintainability of machines.
- Zero equipment failure and break down.
- Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 %
- Reduce maintenance cost by 20 %
- Ensure availability of spares all the time.
Six steps in Planned maintenance :
- Equipment evaluation and recoding present status.
- Restore deterioration and improve weakness.
- Building up information management system.
- Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and
members and map out plan.
- Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment
diagnostic techniques and
- Evaluation of planned maintenance.
PILLAR 5 - QUALITY
aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free
manufacturing. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much
like Focused Improvement. We gain understanding of what parts of the
equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality
concerns, then move to potential quality concerns. Transition is from
reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance).
is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on the
basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of
products. The condition are checked and measure in time series to very
that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. The
transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring
and to take counter measures before hand.
- Defect free conditions and control of equipments.
- QM activities to support quality assurance.
- Focus of prevention of defects at source
- Focus on poka-yoke. ( fool proof system )
- In-line detection and segregation of defects.
- Effective implementation of operator quality assurance.
- Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero
- Reduce in-process defects by 50 %
- Reduce cost of quality by 50 %.
Data requirements :
Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in
For customer-end data, we have to get data on
- Customer end line rejection
- Field complaints.
In-house, data include data related to products and data related to process
Data related to product :
- Product wise defects
- Severity of the defect and its
contribution - major/minor
- Location of the defect with
reference to the layout
- Magnitude and frequency of its
occurrence at each stage of measurement
- Occurrence trend in beginning
and the end of each production/process/changes.
(Like pattern change, ladle/furnace
- Occurrence trend with respect
to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodical
replacement of quality components.
Data related to processes:
- The operating condition for
individual sub-process related to men, method, material
- The standard
settings/conditions of the sub-process
- The actual record of the
settings/conditions during the defect occurrence.
PILLAR 6 - TRAINING :
aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who
has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and
independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade their
skill. It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they
should also learn "Know-why". By experience they gain,
"Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. This they do
without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so.
Hence it become necessary to train them on knowing "Know-why".
The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts.
different phase of skills are
Phase 1 : Do not know.
Phase 2 : Know the theory but cannot do.
Phase 3 : Can do but cannot teach
Phase 4 : Can do and also teach.
- Focus on improvement of knowledge, skills and techniques.
- Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt needs.
- Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to employee
- Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable.
- Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical
- Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills /
- Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme.
Steps in Educating and training
- Setting policies and priorities and checking present status
of education and training.
- Establish of training system for operation and maintenance
skill up gradation.
- Training the employees for upgrading the operation and
- Preparation of training calendar.
- Kick-off of the system for training.
- Evaluation of activities and study of future approach.
PILLAR 7 - OFFICE TPM :
TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH, KK, QM,
TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the administrative functions
and identify and eliminate losses. This
includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office
automation. Office TPM addresses twelve major losses. They are
- Processing loss
- Cost loss including in areas such as procurement, accounts, marketing,
sales leading to high inventories
- Communication loss
- Idle loss
- Set-up loss
- Accuracy loss
- Office equipment breakdown
- Communication channel breakdown, telephone and fax lines
- Time spent on retrieval of information
- Non availability of correct on line stock status
- Customer complaints due to logistics
- Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases
How to start office TPM ?
A senior person from one of the support functions e.g. Head of Finance, MIS,
Purchase etc should be heading the sub-committee. Members representing
all support functions and people from Production & Quality should be
included in sub committee. TPM co-ordinate plans and guides the sub committee.
- Providing awareness about office TPM to all support departments
- Helping them to identify P, Q, C, D, S, M in each function in relation to
- Identify the scope for improvement in each function
- Collect relevant data
- Help them to solve problems in their circles
- Make up an activity board where progress is monitored on both sides -
results and actions along with Kaizens.
- Fan out to cover all employees and circles in all functions.
Kaizen topics for Office TPM :
- Inventory reduction
- Lead time reduction of critical processes
- Motion & space losses
- Retrieval time reduction.
- Equalizing the work load
- Improving the office efficiency by eliminating the time loss on
retrieval of information, by achieving zero breakdown of office
equipment like telephone and fax lines.
Office TPM and its Benefits :
- Involvement of all people in support functions for focusing on better plant
- Better utilized work area
- Reduce repetitive work
- Reduced inventory levels in all parts of the supply chain
- Reduced administrative costs
- Reduced inventory carrying cost
- Reduction in number of files
- Reduction of overhead costs (to include cost of non-production/non capital
- Productivity of people in support functions
- Reduction in breakdown of office equipment
- Reduction of customer complaints due to logistics
- Reduction in expenses due to emergency dispatches/purchases
- Reduced manpower
- Clean and pleasant work environment.
P Q C D S M in Office TPM :
P - Production output lost due to want of material, Manpower
productivity, Production output lost due to want of tools.
Q - Mistakes in preparation of cheques, bills, invoices, payroll,
Customer returns/warranty attributable to BOPs, Rejection/rework in BOP's/job
work, Office area rework.
C - Buying cost/unit produced, Cost of logistics - inbound/outbound,
Cost of carrying inventory, Cost of communication, Demurrage costs.
D - Logistics losses (Delay in loading/unloading)
- Delay in delivery due to any of the support functions
- Delay in payments to suppliers
- Delay in information
S - Safety in material handling/stores/logistics, Safety of soft and hard
M - Number of kaizens in office areas.
How office TPM supports
plant TPM :
Office TPM supports the plant, initially in doing Jishu Hozen of the
machines (after getting training of Jishu Hozen), as in Jishu Hozen at the
- Initial stages machines are more and manpower is less, so the help of
departments can be taken, for this
- Office TPM can eliminate the lodes on line for no material and
Extension of office TPM to
suppliers and distributors :
This is essential, but only after we have done as much as possible
internally. With suppliers it will lead to on-time delivery, improved 'in-coming'
quality and cost reduction. With distributors it will lead to accurate demand generation, improved
secondary distribution and reduction in damages during storage and handling. In any case we will have to teach them based on our experience and practice and highlight gaps in the system which affect both sides. In case of some of the larger companies, they have started to support
clusters of suppliers.
PILLAR 8 -
SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT :
- Zero accident,
- Zero health damage
- Zero fires.
In this area focus is on to
create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by
our process or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each
of the other pillars on a regular basis.
A committee is constituted for this pillar which comprises representative of
officers as well as workers. The committee is headed by Senior vice President
( Technical ). Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant. Manager (Safety)
is looking after functions related to safety. To create awareness among
employees various competitions like safety slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc.
related to safety can be organized at regular intervals.
Today, with competition in industry at an all time high, TPM may be the only thing that stands between success and total failure for some companies. It has been proven to be a program that works. It can be adapted to work not only in industrial plants, but in construction, building maintenance, transportation, and in a variety of other situations. Employees must be educated and convinced that TPM is not just another
"program of the month" and that management is totally committed to the program and the extended time frame necessary for full implementation. If everyone involved in a TPM program does his or her part, an unusually high rate of return compared to resources invested may be expected.
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Revised: Thursday, 08-Oct-2015 11:54:54 AEDT